Gendercide is the systematic killing of members of a specific sex, male or female, for any number of reasons and through a variety of methods. In the 1985 book, Gendercide: The Implications of Sex Selection, Mary Anne Warren drew an analogy between the concept of genocide and the deliberate extermination of women through female infanticide, maternal death, witch hunts and other abuses against women. but, new studies show that gendercide is just one of many symptoms of inequalities, even in America.
Despite the increase in international health care concerns and administration, many countries continue to practice gendercide through a variety of methods. The following 25 studies and infographics about gendercide may open your eyes to the various methods used for discrimination of various populations.
Gendercide, Men and Women
- The Women’s Crusade vs. Wars and Casualties: According to this blog entry, global statistics show that “more girls and women are now missing from the planet, precisely because they are female, than men were killed on the battlefield in all the wars of the 20th century.”
- Gendercide: The State of Study: This paper explores the early articulation of Mary Anne Warren’s gendercide framework, and the conclusion explores whether gendercide remains as prominent now in political-military conflicts and social institutions worldwide as in the past.
- Recognizing ‘gendercide’: This article looks at gendercide from male and female perspectives, with links to resources that show rape as a weapon of war and to the killing of 8,000 Bosnian non-combatant men and boys as policy.
- Genocide and Humanitarian Intervention: Incorporating the Gender Variable: This paper, written in 2002, notes that women are gendercide targets (including maternal mortality), but “battle-age” men are targets as well, often presaging a full-scale genocide.
- Percentage of Pregnancies Aborted by Country: Abortion is a hotly debated issue in the U.S., although this data shows the U.S. in the middle of all countries listed, with Russia leading by 52 percent of all pregnancies aborted and Panama coming in last at .02 percent. U.S. rates at 22.6 percent. This table is just one of many located at this Johnston Archives site, although no tables exist for gender-based abortions.
- Impact of female feticide on gender disparities in child health and survival in India: This recording produced by Johns Hopkins suggests that elimination of sex-selective abortion could lead to an increase in excess female infant and child mortality.
Noteworthy Articles and Blogs
- Female infanticide, Living oppressed or dying in vain: While this article brings up some valid points, the graphic is not cited, nor are many of the points in the article. The two links lead to Christian articles that may or may not be biased in their statements.
- Female Feticide: This Frontline article provides the information that the previous blog lacks — facts about the sale of ultrasound machines to countries displaying loss of female infants by census. Feticide is another word for abortion (or, termination of pregnancy, also known as TOP), usually performed during or after the second trimester.
- GE Business Dilemma: Ultrasound Technology and Feticide: Offered by GE, this article and links to further articles, prepare GE’s background into accusations connecting their machines to female feticide in India.
- Female Infanticide, Two Case Studies from India and China [PDF]: While this study is cited informally within the body of the text, it appears to be more of an opinion piece based upon reports offered from Gendercide Watch, a resource noted in the “resources” category below.
- Gendercide, International Women’s Day and The Economist: This article, published in From Poverty to Power, critiques a piece carried by The Economist this year entitled, Gendercide. This graphic, one of two contained within this article, shows a decline in males per 100 females in South Korea, and upticks in males per 100 females in China, India and Northwest India.
- Saving the World’s Women: This seven-page article in The New York Times online presents numerous studies, with the raw conclusion that women seem to be worth more when they earn more money or become educated.
- A Cutting Tradition: The New York Times focuses on female circumcision, and notes that, while male circumcision demonstrates health benefits, there is no medical value in female circumcision.
- Pharaonic Circumcision (infibulation): This article, which centers on Islamic ruling on male and female circumcision, focuses on the mutilation and possible sterilization involved in this extreme female circumcision practice.
- Silence greets ‘gendercide’ of women: This article, written in 2009, predates The Economist’s article noted above; however, the author focuses on the book, Half the Sky: Turning Oppression into Opportunity for Women Worldwide, by Nicholas D. Kristof and Sheryl WuDunn, the same authors of the seven-page article in The New York Times, also listed above. Of note is attention to U.S. women, who continue to be victims of gender violence, mostly based upon economic disparities.
Recent U.S. Issues
- International Infant Mortality Rates: This study does not mention gendercide, nor does it include China or India. The graph shows the rate of infant deaths per 1,000 births in industrialized nations. The U.S. infant mortality rate was more than twice that of six other industrialized countries in 2004, including Singapore, Hong Kong, Japan, Sweden and Finland. However, this rate decreased from the 1998 figure of 7.1 deaths per 1,000 births in the U.S.
- The Black-and-White World of Walter Ashby Plecker: The story about Plecker is well known in the Amherst, Virginia area, where Plecker focused undue attention to the Monacan Indian population in that region. Plecker’s case against the Native American in Virginia did not end until 1997, when Governor George Allen repudiated Plecker’s policies (including The Racial Integrity Act) and implemented a law through which Native Americans could receive corrected birth certificates, free of charge.
- Unequal Pay: The Equal Pay Act was made law in 1963, almost fifty years ago. Yet, women still earn less than men, with a wage gap that has narrowed by less than half a cent per year as shown by this graphic.
- Death By American Bombing and Other Democide: Although this site represents an entire resource for democide (death by government, relating to genocide), this page focuses on the number of individuals killed worldwide by American war movements.
- Aegis: “Preventing Crimes Against Humanity” is the tag line for this site, which focuses on human rights and genocide, including gendercide.
- Crimes of War: This project is a collaboration of journalists, lawyers and scholars dedicated to raising public awareness of the laws of war and their application to situations of conflict.
- Gendercide Watch: This entire Web site is filled with case studies, links and resources about gendercide, with a focus on women and an increasing focus on men. Note: Many links on this site return a “404.”
- Journal of Genocide Research: This journal promotes an interdisciplinary and comparative peer-reviewed approach to the study of genocide. Portions of articles available through Google Scholar.
- P.A.P. Statistics: Human rights statistics abound here, ranging from abortion to xenophobia.
- Women Watch: This section of the United Nations site is devoted to gender disparities worldwide with an emphasis on women.